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“A major thesis of the study is that there have been two party systems in Wisconsin. The First Wisconsin Party System was based on ethnocultural cleavages,primarily between Yankee and Teuton and Protestant and Catholic. The host and dominant culture of Wisconsin was comprised of New England and New York Protestant Yankees who organized a coalition of Protestant immigrants from England, Norway, and Sweden that became the hegemonic Republican party. The counter culture of early Wisconsin was basically organized by Germans, especially German Catholics in alliance with Irish Cathlics and secondarily French,Polish, Austrian, and Italian Catholics. A remarkable level of partisan stability from 1850 through World War I will be illustrated. The top Democratic counties of the 1850s remained the Democratic bastions all the way to World War I, when “Wilson’s War” dislodged Wisconsin Germans decisively from their traditional party allegiance. Those counties which were the backbone of the Whig and Liberty parties in the 1850s became and remained bedrock Republican counties right up to the Depression of the 1930s. Those counties heavily populated by prosperous New england Yankees in the 1850s which were not transformed by the arrival of Catholic or African American immigrants remained Republican from 1850 through 1970!
The Second Wisconsin Party System has been structured around a class based cleavage, pitting labor against capital, public employee against the private sector, lower-class minorities against the middle and upper class majority. While most Protestant Yankees have tended to remain loyal to their ancestral parties, there have been signifcant defections among the Norwegians and probably Swedish working class and poorer rural groups in the northwest section of the state. The Scandinavian counties abandoned the Republcians for the LaFollete dynasty’s Progressive Party in the 1930s, and gradually shifted to a modernizing, ideologically liberal Democratic party in the 1950s and 1960s. In industrial and Germanic Milwaukee, and to a lesser extent, in Sheboygan and Manitowoc, a social democratic party evolved form the activities of German and Jewish intellectuals and skilled German, and some Polish, factory workers. Milwaukee’s Socialsits were, next to New York city’s, the most powerful in the nation, electing mayors, state representatives, and a congressman. In the 1930s the socialists, greatly weakened during the 1920s, merged with the progressives. Both parties were essentially drained of critical leadership, especially labor, by the New Deal. Equally important in defining the Second Wisconsin Party system was the defection of the rural and small town Germans from the Democratic Party, startaing from their outrage over “Wilson’s War” and their domestic persecution at that time, and culminating in their reaction to the high taxes, regulaton, and urban or southern biases of the New deal coalition.”
Peg Fleury’s Outpost “Exchange” Article Best Ever
Description of “Milwaukee Renaissance”
On Line Interviews
Big City Primary Environmental Corridors: An Interview w. Sura Faraj
Tim HuthFounder of Living Off the Fat of the Land, Organic Farm Now Serving Beans and Barley’s Produce Needs
Erik LindbergCommunity Building and Restoration, Community Growers
Dave LuhrssenArts and Entertainment Editor, “Shepherd Express”
Andre Lee Ellis Theater With a Surviving Mind
Debbie Metke Impeachment Group and World Citizens—Milwaukee
Harvey Taylor Milwaukee Poet
Ken Leinbach Executive Director, Urban Ecology Center
Martha Davis Kipcak of the KITCHEN TABLE PROJECT, Slow Food Wisconsin Southeast, and the Milwaukee Food Council
Barbara Bell, Keeper/Trainer of the Bonobos of Milwaukee County Zoo
Megan Godsil Jeyifo?, Daughter of Riverwest Leaving Bay Area for Chicago!
Howard Hinterthuer, “Happy Green Warrior” of Ozaukee County
Ann Brummitt, Coordinator Milwaukee River Work Group(MRWG)
Milwaukee Inner City Congregations Allied for Hope
Community Roofing & Restoration
Joshua Fraundorf, Hands-On Leader of Community
Jimmy and Roselyn Carter with Community Crew on Habitat for Humanity Project
Grace Lee Boggs
Grace Lee Boggs, Philosopher/Activist of Cities of Hope
London Report on U.S. Urban Agriculture: Edible Cities
Growing Power Urban Agriculture
Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Tanzania’s Hon Dr. David Mathayo David w. Will Allen, Growing Power Founder & CEO
Courtney Becks, Featured Writer Winter 2008/2009
Photo: Slow Food Nationís victory garden in front of San Francisco City Hall
Fun/Inspiring Music for Weddings, Mitzvahs, Graduations, Homecomings, Anniversaries, & Retirements
In memoriam Frank Zeidler (1912-2006)
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*Growing Power Press Release Spring 2008:10,000 Yellow Perch in Aquaponic System at Growing Power City Farm.
*Food Gardens in Milwaukee Backyards and Neighborhood Lots
Projects Of the Moment
Eco Tourism in Milwaukee and Region
International Urban Agriculture Yahoo Group Chaordic Experiment
Urban Agrarians of the World, Unite!
We Must Amend Our Soil.
Red Wriggler Worm Photo Essays
Projects Beyond Our Borders
Favorite Blogs and Web Links
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