Mutual Aid Key to Evolution, says Kropotkin in “Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution” (1902)

“Life in societies enables the feeblest animals, the feeblest birds, and the feeblest mammals to resist, or protect themselves from, the most terrible birds and beasts of prey; it permits longevity; it enables the gregarious animals to migrate in search of new abodes. Therefore, while fully admitting that force, swiftness, protective colors, cunning, and endurance of hunger and cold, which are mentioned by Darwin and Wallace, are so many qualities making the individual, or the species, the fittest under certain circumstances, we maintain that under any circumstances sociability is the greatest advantage in the struggle for life. Those species which willingly or unwillingly abandon it are doomed to decay; while those animals which know best how to combine have the greatest chance of survival and of further evolution, although they may be inferior to others in each of the faculties enumerated by Darwin and Wallace, except the intellectual faculty.”


Harvey Taylor on Whales, Eskimos, and Mutual Aid

Last edited by g. Based on work by TeganDowling and Godsil.  Page last modified on February 03, 2006

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